Galaxies of our Universe

Ok...of course anyone can say this now...but I always knew galaxies formed around black holes. It always seemed so obvious to me...what other mechanism could there be for these island universes to form out of the relative homegeneity of an inflating Universe? With each and every galaxy I image, I imagine the colossal power of the supernatural entity located at its center, and shudder with reverent awe and respect. Galaxies are also so damn far away...think about it...our current model of light implies the pictures you see here were made by photons of light that have travelled intact across the Universe for tens, perhaps hundreds of millions of years! Several thousand photons, spawn from the billions of stars within a galaxy millions of light years away and millions of years ago, survived this huge expanse of space only to be captured by my telescope and displayed for you here! How spectacular is that?

Most images shown here were taken unguided, using a 10" LX200R at prime focus with an OPTEC Lepus 0.62X focal reducer and a Canon T3i. However, as of 2020, more and more are being taken with my 12inch Meade Classic on my MyT using the Meade f/6.3 series 4000 focal reducer and my new cooled ASI2600mc.

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NGC4214 (Updated May. 1, 2022)

 

Showcasing: NGC5982

NGC5982 - Drac Galaxy Tri  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC5982
Alternate Name: Drac Galaxy Tri
Constellation: Draco
Imaging Date: April 10, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 156 frames@180sec ~ 7.8hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 3.3' x 0.8' / 3.0' x 2.1' / 5.5' x 2.5'
Comment: Left to right are NGC5981, NGC5982 and NGC5985 referred to as the Draco Galaxy Trio. I'm surprised this trio of galaxies isn't imaged more often. It's a beautiful arrangement with a multitude of other small galaxies in the background.

 

NGC4567,4568

NGC4567,4568 - Siamese Twins Galaxies  by Terry Riopka

M87

M87 - Relativistic Jet  by Terry Riopka

NGC4676

NGC4676 - The Mice Galaxies  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4567,4568
Alternate Name: Siamese Twins Galaxies
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: May 31, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 2.9' x 2.0' / 4.6' x 2.0'
Comment: A beautiful pair of near interacting galaxies in an early phase of collision! Also known as "The Butterfly Galaxies", the pair is roughly 120 million light years away shown here in the same field of view as NGC4564 (top right) and a 14.4 mag galaxiy named IC3578 (lower left).
Designation: M87
Alternate Name: Relativistic Jet
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: April 17, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 40 frames@20sec ~ 13.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.3' x 6.6'
Comment:
Designation: NGC4676
Alternate Name: The Mice Galaxies
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: May 4, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 75 frames@20sec ~ 25.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 6400
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 2.3' x 0.7' / 2.2' x 0.8'
Comment:

NGC4169,4173,4174,4175

NGC4169,4173,4174,4175 - The B x  by Terry Riopka

Arp117

Arp117 - IC983,IC982,NGC5490 by Terry Riopka

NGC3718

NGC3718 - Arp 214  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4169,4173,4174,4175
Alternate Name: The B x
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: May 5, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 85 frames@20sec ~ 28.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 6400
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 3.8'
Comment:
Designation: Arp117
Alternate Name: IC983,IC982,NGC5490
Constellation: Bootes
Imaging Date: June 4, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 88 frames@180sec ~ 4.4hrs
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 4.7' x 4.7' / 40" x 27" / 2' x 1.0'
Comment: This is a very nice collection of galaxies in Bootes. I could probably use another 5 hours of exposure, but this year the weather just would not cooperate. I love the diversity of galaxies, many of which have very similar redshifts, suggesting they form a true gravitationally related cluster of galaxies.
Designation: NGC3718
Alternate Name: Arp 214
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: March 9, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 196 frames@180sec ~ 9.8hrs
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 9.8' 2.5'
Comment: This is a peculiar galaxy with a bent dust lane intersecting its center, whose ends extend out to what look like two faint spiral arms. They are thought to have formed by matter pulled by tidal interaction with NGC 3729, seen in the bottom right portion of the image. You can also see a number of background galaxies, including Hickson 56, a group of 5 interacting galaxies above NGC3718. The wikipedia apparent size of this galaxy is completely off for some reason, so I measured it myself:) The hard part imaging this galaxy was reducing the noise sufficiently without wiping out the spiral arms. It could definitely use 20+ more hours of imaging to get more color and details in its spiral arms...but the Universe is so damn big, and there's so little time!

NGC4656

NGC4656 - H ckey Stick Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC7479

NGC7479 - Barred Sprial Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

Stephans-Quintet

Stephans-Quintet - NGC7317 NGC7320  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4656
Alternate Name: H ckey Stick Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: May 1, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 75 frames@20sec ~ 25.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 19.5' x 2.0'
Comment:
Designation: NGC7479
Alternate Name: Barred Sprial Galaxy
Constellation: Pegasus
Imaging Date: November 30, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 78 frames@20sec ~ 26.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 3.2' x 2.5'
Comment:
Designation: Stephans-Quintet
Alternate Name: NGC7317 NGC7320
Constellation: Pegasus
Imaging Date: November 5, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 72 frames@180sec ~ 3.6hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 1.1'x 1.1' / 0.9'x 0.9' / 1.9'x 1.2' / 1.7'x 1.3' / 2.2'x 1.1'
Comment: Finally some nice detail with my 12" and cooled camera! Here's my earlier attempt with my 10" and much shorter exposure about 8 years ago here.

NGC4214

NGC4214 - Dwarf Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M102

M102 - NGC5866 by Terry Riopka

NGC2683

NGC2683 - UFO Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4214
Alternate Name: Dwarf Galaxy
Constellation: CanesVenatici
Imaging Date: May 1, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 178 frames@180sec ~ 8.9hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: NA
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.4' x 6.6'
Comment: NGC4214 in Canes Venatici is a barred irregular galaxy larger and more luminescent than the Small Magellanic Cloud but about 10 million light years away. Its companion galaxy UGCA 276 is faintly visible in the top left part of the image.
Designation: M102
Alternate Name: NGC5866
Constellation: Draco
Imaging Date: May 7, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 75 frames@20sec ~ 25.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 4.7'x 1.9'
Comment:
Designation: NGC2683
Alternate Name: UFO Galaxy
Constellation: Lynx
Imaging Date: March 6, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 95 frames@180sec ~ 4.8hrs
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 9.3' x 2.2'
Comment: About 20 million light years away, this magnitude 10.6 barred spiral galaxy has beautiful reddish dust lanes and several regions that show up in Halpha, regions I could not have gotten previously with my DSLR. This galaxy apparently has more than twice the number of globular clusters in our galaxy. The key to imaging in this case seems to be not so much longer exposure as it is good focus, good tracking and steady atmosphere, all of which could probably stand for some improvement. Here's my previous attempt with my 10 inch under fairly good conditions. Interestingly, on trying to reconcile the apparently different detail I was seeing in my two attempts, I realized my 10inch attempt actually only images the central part of the galaxy, while the newer attempt extends the edges of the galaxy about twice the distance out!

NGC672,IC1727

NGC672,IC1727 - Interacting Pair f Galaxies  by Terry Riopka

M109

M109 - NGC3992 by Terry Riopka

NGC3628

NGC3628 - Sarahs Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC672,IC1727
Alternate Name: Interacting Pair f Galaxies
Constellation: Triangulum
Imaging Date: December 10, 2020
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 101 frames@180sec ~ 5.1hrs
Gain Setting: 0
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 6.2' x 2.3' / 6.5' x 2.4'
Comment: NGC672 is a spiral galaxy interacting with a dwarf galaxy called IC1727. The pair is located about 23 million light years away and is thought to be part of a cluster of dwarf galaxies formed along a filament of intergalactic gas accreted on a dark matter "backbone". Methods to detect that intergalactic gas are currently underway. The sensitivity of the ASI2600mc camera is notable in this 5 hour exposure, revealing nice structure in the larger pair of galaxies but also bringing out multiple edge on galaxies in the field as well, in addition to several "fuzzies" around NGC672 itself. There's no way I could have gotten this much detail using my DSLR!
Designation: M109
Alternate Name: NGC3992
Constellation: UrsaMajor
Imaging Date: March 15, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 119 frames@180sec ~ 5.9hrs
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.6' x 4.7'
Comment: M109 is one of the most distant Messier objects and is almost twice the size of our galaxy, at a distance of about 75 million light years! This image shows the barred spiral galaxy with two of three satellite galaxies UGC6969 (largest) and UGC6940 in the upper middle. Not visible to the left and up is UGC6923. The bar shape is thought to be due to star orbit instabilities as a result of a super massive black hole (the ultimate scape goat for everything these days :)
Designation: NGC3628
Alternate Name: Sarahs Galaxy
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: May 4, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 84 frames@20sec ~ 28.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 15' x 3.6'
Comment:

M87

M87 - NA by Terry Riopka

M64

M64 - Black Eye Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC891

NGC891 - Dark Star Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M87
Alternate Name: NA
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: April 17, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 40 frames@20sec ~ 13.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.3' x 6.6'
Comment: If you magnify this image you can clearly see the relativistic jet!
Designation: M64
Alternate Name: Black Eye Galaxy
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: April 17, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 84 frames@20sec ~ 28.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 10.7' x 5.1'
Comment:
Designation: NGC891
Alternate Name: Dark Star Galaxy
Constellation: Andromeda
Imaging Date: September 19, 2020
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 154 frames@120sec ~ 5.1hrs
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 12.0' x 1.0'
Comment: NGC891 is a beautiful example of an edge-on galaxy, about 30 million light years away in Andromeda. Apparently this galaxy is very similar to what our galaxy would look like seen edge-on. You can see glimpses of that yourself on very dark summer nights looking into the center of the Milky Way! Its many filaments and tendrils extending out of its plane are thought to be the result of the ejection of material due to supernovae and intense stellar formation activity. In the upper left part of the image, right under NGC891, you can also see a tiny image of a distant spiral galaxy in the background. Upping the aperture and exposure time really does bring out some nice detail! Here are my previous attempts at 20 minutes and 52 minutes exposure time, both with my 10 inch.

NGC3077

NGC3077 - Dwarf Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M81

M81 - B des Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC6503

NGC6503 - Dwarf Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC3077
Alternate Name: Dwarf Galaxy
Constellation: UrsaMajor
Imaging Date: April 22, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 118 frames@180sec ~ 5.9hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.4' x 4.5'
Comment: NGC3077 is also a starburst dwarf galaxy just a little further at 12 million light years. Its disrupted structure suggests some sort of galaxy interaction in its past. Its young star bluish core has a small inner disk of older stars visible as a small reddish peanut shaped object in the galaxy's center. What a stunninglittle galaxy!
Designation: M81
Alternate Name: B des Galaxy
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: January 26, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 153 frames@180sec ~ 7.7hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 26.9' x 14.1'
Comment: M81 is about 12 million light years away, with an enormous 70 million stellar mass black hole at its active center! I may have pushed the color a little too much in my processing, and may eventually revisit that process. However, the detail in this version of M81 came out spectacularly well using my ASI2600mc on my 12 inch, no comparison to my previous much shorter exposure using my 10 inch. Its satellite galaxy, Holmberg IX, is an irregular dwarf galaxy, faintly visible here to the right of the main galaxy. I thought it was a smudge from a bad set of flats at first!
Designation: NGC6503
Alternate Name: Dwarf Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Draco
Imaging Date: August 14, 2015
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 49 frames@20sec ~ 16.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7' x 2.5'
Comment: This mottled looking spiral is about 18 million light years away, right at the edge of a strange empty area of space, called the Local Void. It's thought to be only about 30,000 light years in diameter, about the third of the size of the Milky Way.

NGC4038

NGC4038 - Antennae Galaxies  by Terry Riopka

M77-Supernova-2018ivc

M77-Supernova-2018ivc - NGC1068 by Terry Riopka

NGC660

NGC660 - P lar Ring Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4038
Alternate Name: Antennae Galaxies
Constellation: Corvus
Imaging Date: May 5, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 85 frames@20sec ~ 28.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 6400
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.2' x 3.1' / 3.1' x 1.6'
Comment:
Designation: M77-Supernova-2018ivc
Alternate Name: NGC1068
Constellation: Cetus
Imaging Date: December 7, 2018
Imaging Location: MadisonCT
Exposure Time: 84 frames@20sec ~ 28.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.1' x 6.0
Comment: Here's an image of the supernova 2018ivc! Compare this with my previous image of M77 four years ago here. Then check out this blinking GIF here .
Designation: NGC660
Alternate Name: P lar Ring Galaxy
Constellation: Pisces
Imaging Date: November 5, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 127 frames@180sec ~ 6.3hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 2.7' x 0.84'
Comment: The ring around the galaxy actually consists of only several hundreds of red and blue supergiant stars, thought to have resulted from an interaction with another galaxy about a billion years ago.

NGC6027

NGC6027 - Seyferts Sextet  by Terry Riopka

NGC772

NGC772 - Fiddlehead Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC4490

NGC4490 - C c n Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC6027
Alternate Name: Seyferts Sextet
Constellation: Serpens
Imaging Date: July 21, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 165 frames@20sec ~ 55.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 0.4'x 0.2' / 0.5'x 0.4' / 0.9'x 0.2' / 0.4'x 0.2' / 0.2'x 0.2' / 0.8'x 0.4'
Comment: Also known as "Seyfert's Sextet", only 4 of the 6 are truly interacting and about 190 million light years distant. The fifth (small, center) is a background galaxy almost 5 times further away, while the sixth (top, vertically elongated) is actually a "tidal tail" of stars torn from one of the galaxies. The four should coalesce billions of years from now into a single large elliptical galaxy. The galaxies range in magnitude from 14.7 to 16.8 and quite small, making them challenging to photograph. However, good focus even brought out some true color out of this beautiful but small cluster of colliding galaxies! How spectacular is that?
Designation: NGC772
Alternate Name: Fiddlehead Galaxy
Constellation: Aries
Imaging Date: January 2, 2017
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 85 frames@20sec ~ 28.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.2' x 4.3'
Comment: This peculiar galaxy, also known as Arp78, is about 106 million light years distant with a diameter roughtly twice that of the Milky Way. The slightly elongated elliptical object lower and to the left is its companion galaxy, NGC770, at a distance of about 160,000 light years from the NGC772 core.
Designation: NGC4490
Alternate Name: C c n Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: June 4, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.0' x 2.0'
Comment:

M77

M77 - NGC1068 by Terry Riopka

NGC1961

NGC1961 - IC2133 by Terry Riopka

NGC1421

NGC1421 - Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M77
Alternate Name: NGC1068
Constellation: Cetus
Imaging Date: November 21, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 79 frames@20sec ~ 26.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.1' x 6.0'
Comment: Closest and brightest example of a Seyfert galaxy, containing a very active black hole approximately 15 million times the mass of our Sun.
Designation: NGC1961
Alternate Name: IC2133
Constellation: Camelopardalis
Imaging Date: January 30, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 276 frames@60sec ~ 4.6hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 4.6' x 3.0'
Comment: This is known as the NGC1961 galaxy group consisting of a total of six galaxies. Mousing over the image displays an annotation that labels the galaxies of the group. The largest of them, NGC1961 is about 200 million light years from Earth and likely over 200,000 light years in diameter! There are competing theories about the galaxy NGC1961 shown in a closesup here. Based on mass calculations, it is either a massive disc galaxy with a huge, even more massive halo (not visible), or, it's a coincidental interloper encroaching on the group, *and* there's a massive amount of unseen matter stabalizing the cluster.
Designation: NGC1421
Alternate Name: Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Eridanus
Imaging Date: January 3, 2016
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 65 frames@20sec ~ 21.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 3.4' x 0.8'
Comment: Mag. 11.4 interacting barred spiral galaxy about 95 million light years away.

NGC2841

NGC2841 - Tigers Eye Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M33

M33 - Pinwheel Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC7814

NGC7814 - Little S mbrer Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC2841
Alternate Name: Tigers Eye Galaxy
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: January 3, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 81 frames@180sec ~ 4.1hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.1' x 3.5'
Comment: Known as the Tiger's Eye Galaxy, this is an unbarred spiral galaxy about 46 million light years away. It is a prototype for class of galaxies called "flocculent galaxies" whose arms are patchy and discontinous. Its nucleus orbits in the opposite direction to its outer rim, suggesting some sort of interaction with another galaxy in its distant past.
Designation: M33
Alternate Name: Pinwheel Galaxy
Constellation: Triangulum
Imaging Date: November 18, 2020
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 98 frames@180sec ~ 4.9hrs
Gain Setting: 0
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 71' x 42'
Comment: Also known as NGC598, this rather large distended galaxy is about 3 million light years away. This galaxy has some beautiful color to it, and you don't need an Halpha filter to get to it. This was taken using RGB only, with some restrained color saturation to boost the "natural" colors. Inevitably, you hear astroimagers combining Halpha images with RGB, but the bottom line is that *all* that information is there already - you just need a long enough exposure and a reweighting of the color to show it. Here are my two previous attempts at 7 minutes and 53 minutes exposure time with my T3i on my 10 inch.
Designation: NGC7814
Alternate Name: Little S mbrer Galaxy
Constellation: Pegasus
Imaging Date: November 10, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.5' x 2.3'
Comment: Nice edge-on galaxy with a strong dust lane, about the same physical size as M104 and about 40 million light years distant. Galaxies IC5381 and IC5383 are also visible to the upper left and right respectively.

NGC4274

NGC4274 - Ring Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC7331

NGC7331 - Caldwell 30  by Terry Riopka

NGC4874

NGC4874 - Center f C ma Cluster  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC4274
Alternate Name: Ring Galaxy
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: May 4, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 75 frames@20sec ~ 25.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.0' x 1.2'
Comment: A beautiful spiral galaxy in Coma Berenices sometimes called the "Ring Galaxy" because of the circular ring around the galaxy core. Note the dust lane that (uncharacteristically for dust lanes) veers into the core somewhat.
Designation: NGC7331
Alternate Name: Caldwell 30
Constellation: Pegasus
Imaging Date: October 7, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 70 frames@180sec ~ 3.5hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 10.5' x 3.7'
Comment: This is an unbarred spiral galaxy about 40 million light years away. Interestingly, its bulge rotates in the opposite direction to its periphery! The other galaxies are all about 70-90 times further away, the unbarred spirals NGC 7335 and 7336, the barred spiral galaxy NGC 7337 and the elliptical galaxy NGC 7340. The two fuzzies in the upper right are PGC69281 and PGC69291.
Designation: NGC4874
Alternate Name: Center f C ma Cluster
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: May 5, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 34 frames@30sec ~ 17.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 6400
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size:
Comment:

M63

M63 - Sunfl wer Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC4631

NGC4631 - Whale Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M74

M74 - Face n Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M63
Alternate Name: Sunfl wer Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: June 19, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 38 frames@20sec ~ 12.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 12.6' x 7.2'
Comment: There's a good reason why this is called the "Sunflower Galaxy". You can see beautiful short spiral arm segments around the entire periphery of the galaxy. Recently, evidence has been found of faint, giant arc-loop features in the halo of the galaxy hypothesized to be the remnants of a disrupted dwarf satellite galaxy.
Designation: NGC4631
Alternate Name: Whale Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: May 1, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 12.5' x 1.2'
Comment: I was surprised at the detail that came out in this beautiful galaxy, showing some fantastic mottled structure.
Designation: M74
Alternate Name: Face n Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Pisces
Imaging Date: December 14, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 150 frames@20sec ~ 50.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 10.5' x 9.5'
Comment: My second attempt at this low-surface-brightness galaxy. I simply added the frames from this round to my previous set - reducing noise and improving the color somewhat. Here's my previous attempt.

M82-Supernova-2014J

M82-Supernova-2014J - Cigar Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M104

M104 - S mbrer Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M94

M94 - Cr cs Eye Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M82-Supernova-2014J
Alternate Name: Cigar Galaxy
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: January 29, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 150 frames@20sec ~ 50.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 11.2' x 4.3'
Comment: !! Supernova 2014J !! Shown here near peak at approximately magnitude 10.5. Compare my image processing this time compared to my first attempt.
Designation: M104
Alternate Name: S mbrer Galaxy
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: May 1, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 71 frames@20sec ~ 23.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.7'x 3.5'
Comment:
Designation: M94
Alternate Name: Cr cs Eye Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: June 27, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 79 frames@20sec ~ 26.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 11' x 9'
Comment: Also known as the "Cat's Eye Galaxy" and NGC4736, this beautiful starburst galaxy is approximately 15 million light years away. It has an inner structure where intense star formation is occurring. There are also two outer rings, only one of which is visible here - looking like a ghostly halo.

NGC6946

NGC6946 - Firew rks Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M96

M96 - NGC3368 by Terry Riopka

NGC3521

NGC3521 - Bubble Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: NGC6946
Alternate Name: Firew rks Galaxy
Constellation: Cepheus
Imaging Date: October 18, 2020
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 211 frames@120sec ~ 7.0hrs
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.0' x 8.0'
Comment: My second attempt on this beautiful galaxy...this time exposed 10 times longer using my 12 inch Meade Classic for a total of about 7 hours. The colors are still spectacular, but the detail has considerably improved, as have my processing skills :) Here's my first attempt about with the same camera but using only a 40 minute exposure on my 10 inch.
Designation: M96
Alternate Name: NGC3368
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: February 18, 2018
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 85 frames@20sec ~ 28.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.6' x 5.2'
Comment: I was able to image some of the dark lanes in this galaxy, but it may need significantly longer exposures to get more detail. M96 is the brightest galaxy in the M96 Group in Leo, and at magnitude 10.1, is about 35 million light years away. Variations in ultraviolet emission from the core suggest the presence of a supermassive black hole.
Designation: NGC3521
Alternate Name: Bubble Galaxy
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: May 14, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 120 frames@180sec ~ 6.0hrs
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 11.0' x 5.1'
Comment: This is a spiral galaxy in Leo known for its extended halos of gas, thought to be caused by multiple mergers of it with its various satellite galaxies in the past. I like the fact that I'm able to image more background galaxies due to my much longer exposures. The detail is also decent, making visible many small pink splotches of hydrogen-alpha nebulae scattered throughout, corresponding to star forming regions in the galaxy. The galaxy has been measured to be approximately 35 million light years distant.

M106

M106 - NGC4258 by Terry Riopka

NGC2903

NGC2903 - Barred Sprial Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC2146

NGC2146 - Starburst Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M106
Alternate Name: NGC4258
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: April 22, 2020
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 120 frames@120sec ~ 4.0hrs
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: none
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 18.6' x 7.2'
Comment: Interesting galaxy, classified as a Seyfert galaxy and suspected of having a highly active supermassive black hole at its center. The galaxy also has a water vapour megamaser, the source of its purplish hue. This was my first serious go with PixInsight! As you can see, the results truly are astounding, I must say. Of course the 4 hour exposure with a 12 inch also helped :). There is no comparison to my previous 26 minute exposure!
Designation: NGC2903
Alternate Name: Barred Sprial Galaxy
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: March 21, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 12.6' x 6.0'
Comment: Fascinating galaxy with rampant star formation near the core, thought to be the result of galaxy interaction with several small companion galaxies.
Designation: NGC2146
Alternate Name: Starburst Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Camelopardalis
Imaging Date: October 31, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 112 frames@180sec ~ 5.6hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 6.0' x 3.4'
Comment: This peculiar spiral galaxy, about 70 million light years away, is known to be experiencing violent "starburst" activity possibly resulting from a galaxy interaction with NGC2146B in its past. Here's a closeup of the main galaxy.

M82

M82 - Cigar Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M95

M95 - Barred Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC4565

NGC4565 - Needle Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M82
Alternate Name: Cigar Galaxy
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: August 13, 2012
Imaging Location: N rth Bridge
Exposure Time: 49 frames@30sec ~ 24.5min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: none
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 11.2' x 4.3'
Comment:
Designation: M95
Alternate Name: Barred Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: May 7, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 3.1' x 2.9'
Comment: Difficult barred spiral, but nice ring like structure. Home of the Green Lantern?
Designation: NGC4565
Alternate Name: Needle Galaxy
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: April 17, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 74 frames@20sec ~ 24.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 15.0' x 1.1'
Comment:

M108

M108 - NGC3556 by Terry Riopka

M101

M101 - Pinwheel Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M51

M51 - Whirlp l Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M108
Alternate Name: NGC3556
Constellation: UrsaMajor
Imaging Date: March 13, 2015
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 130 frames@20sec ~ 43.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 6400
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.7' x 2.2'
Comment: This is my second attempt at this barred spiral. I made a mistake and used ISO6400 this last time. However, I added these frames to my previous set two years ago taken at ISO3200 and voila!...Still pretty noisy, but definitely an improvement!
Designation: M101
Alternate Name: Pinwheel Galaxy
Constellation: Ursa Major
Imaging Date: June 6, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 27 frames@180sec ~ 81.0min
Gain Setting: 100
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 29' x 27'
Comment: At a distance of about 21 million light years, M101 is about 170,000 light years in diameter and contains about twice the number of stars as the Milky Way. It has a large population of H II star forming regions, many large enough to have their own NGC catalog numbers. If you mouseover the image, you can see an annotated version overlay with the labeled regions. About nine years ago, this was a milestone image for me - the first deep sky photo I took over two different nights and the first time I used a Bahtinov mask for fine tuning focus - a method I still prefer to automatic focus! Here it is for posterity :) - a 29min exposure using my 10 inch and Canon T3i.
Designation: M51
Alternate Name: Whirlp l Galaxy
Constellation: Canes Venatici
Imaging Date: March 21, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 160 frames@20sec ~ 53.3min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 11.2' x 6.9'
Comment: My seventh! attempt at this beautiful double galaxy. This time I combined two nights, one using ISO1600, the other ISO3200 from the previous year. I know you're not supposed to mix ISOs but that's all I had and results weren't horrible. The color's better, focus is good, but the noise is still too high - both times I also had a Moon in the sky, so conditions weren't optimal. I need longer exposures and darker skies!

M31

M31 - Andr meda Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC4216

NGC4216 - Cannibal Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC4438

NGC4438 - Eyes Galaxy Cluster  by Terry Riopka
Designation: M31
Alternate Name: Andr meda Galaxy
Constellation: Andromeda
Imaging Date: September 10, 2012
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 94 frames@30sec ~ 47.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: 300mm Telephoto
Focal Reducer: none
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 190' x 60'
Comment: This is how Andromeda looked through the eyes of an 8 year old - just like I remembered it, taken by the 200 inch Hale telescope!
Designation: NGC4216
Alternate Name: Cannibal Galaxy
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: June 1, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.1' x 1.8'
Comment: I took this more than two years ago, but decided to finally reprocess what I had and post it. Fascinating edge-on galaxy roughly 55 million light years away, near the center of the Virgo cluster. It has almost five times the numnber of globular clusters in our galaxy and has stellar streams connected to two satellite galaxies it appears to be disrupting. There are multiple galaxies visible in this image including most prominently NGC4222 below. There seems to be a great deal of galactic activity in the Virgo cluster, and this galaxy is near the center of it all!
Designation: NGC4438
Alternate Name: Eyes Galaxy Cluster
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: May 11, 2021
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 77 frames@180sec ~ 3.8hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.5' x 3.2'
Comment: This image shows Arp 120, known as the Eyes Galaxy (NGC4438) and its interacting barred lenticular companion NGC4435 (right) as well as the large fuzzy M86 and NGC4402 (left). The fifth small irregular galaxy is IC3355. This gravitationally associated group of galaxies is in the western part of the Markarian Chain of galaxies in Virgo. The black hole in the movie Interstellar was supposed to have been located in the heart of the Eyes Galaxy.

IC342

IC342 - Hidden Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

M99

M99 - Spiral Galaxy  by Terry Riopka

NGC5746,5740

NGC5746,5740 - Blade and Pearl Galaxy  by Terry Riopka
Designation: IC342
Alternate Name: Hidden Galaxy
Constellation: Camelopardalis
Imaging Date: January 4, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 198 frames@180sec ~ 9.9hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 21.9' x 20.9
Comment: This is nicknamed "The Hidden Galaxy" because of its location near the galactic equator, amid clouds of dust that obscure the galaxy from view. The galaxy sits nestled in a beautiful star field that I actually attenuated slightly to showcase the galaxy. It's actually about 2/3 the size of the full moon and if it were elsewhere in the sky, it would be visible to the naked eye! About 10 million light years away, this face on spiral galaxy is about 70000 light years across and contains multiple regions of starburst activity.
Designation: M99
Alternate Name: Spiral Galaxy
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: May 7, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 5.4' x 4.7'
Comment: Nice little face-on spiral with significant mottled structure. It's amazing that the spiral arms show up even in a single 20 sec exposure.
Designation: NGC5746,5740
Alternate Name: Blade and Pearl Galaxy
Constellation: Virgo
Imaging Date: June 1, 2014
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 80 frames@20sec ~ 26.7min
Gain Setting: ISO 1600
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 7.4'x 1' / 2.6'x 1.3'
Comment: These definitely look better together than separately!


M65-M66

M65-M66 - Part f Le Triplet  by Terry Riopka

NGC4725,NGC4747,NGC4712

NGC4725,NGC4747,NGC4712 - NA by Terry Riopka
Designation: M65-M66
Alternate Name: Part f Le Triplet
Constellation: Leo
Imaging Date: April 17, 2013
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 84 frames@20sec ~ 28.0min
Gain Setting: ISO 3200
Imaging Device: Canon Rebel T3i
Optics: LX200R 10" SCT
Focal Reducer: Optec Lepus 0.62X
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 8.7' x 2.5' / 9.1' x 4.2'
Comment: I love the textured detail visible here - both galaxies just barely fitting in the field of view of my focal reducer.
Designation: NGC4725,NGC4747,NGC4712
Alternate Name: NA
Constellation: Coma Berenices
Imaging Date: March 21, 2022
Imaging Location: Concord
Exposure Time: 95 frames@180sec ~ 4.8hrs
Gain Setting: 200
Imaging Device: ZWO ASI2600
Optics: Classic LX200 12" SCT
Focal Reducer: Meade Series 4000 f/6.3
Filter: none
Apparent Size: 9.8' x 6.8' / 3.3' x 1.3' / 1.6' x 0.8'
Comment: Redshifts of NGC4725 and NGC4747 indicate both are roughly 40 million light years away but the extended plumes of NGC4747 suggest the two may have interacted sometime in the distant past. NGC4712 (lower right) is a background galaxy about 5 times further away. Regarding processing, I really needed my flats this time to get the large field of view. However, I applied a circular parametric deconvolution this time because of the full frame...there was no consistent preferential direction to the star distortion. Mouseover to identify galaxy names.

 

 

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Last Updated: May. 7, 2022

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